The short answer to the question is yes. Um, I guess that's the only answer. IMHO the iptables syntax is somewhat similar to Cicso's ACL, though far more extensible. All you need to do is specify which inteface to bind the rule to. It can be one interface, two interfaces, or one interface with different rules applying to all different virual interfaces (eth0:0, eth0:1, eth0:2, etc).
You can create rules for packets destined to the box, leaving the box, or being forwarded through it. If it's a stand alone box, you only need worry about your input and output rulesets. If its a true LAN firewall, then you'd be more interested in your forwarding ruleset.
As for your specific ruleset, just drop all incoming packets with the syn flag set except those destined to 443. Allow all outgoing client requests and all incoming server replies. Allow everything on the loopback.