1) NIS and LDAP are related same as windows active directory.
2) LDAP is used widely.
3) NIS is older method, but yes it is also used in smany environments
4) All your request can be handled through configuration files, In windows you might have used GUI.
5) Yes, you can control user and group policies much better than windows in LINUX.
6) Password aging be handled through "chage" command.
7) You can creted users with default password, by writing you own script.
8) NFS is used to for file sharing
9) CUPS is the service used for printer server
10) Linuxhomenetworking.com has lots of tutorial, which can guide you