I have another post that Redhead was helping me with, but I think I have made progress and have found another issue.
Since there was a known good wpa_supplicant.conf file on my Ubuntu laptop, I just copied that one to my server's /etc folder and changed the ap_scan value from 2 to 1.
with my router's web interface open and, shazam! It was picking up an IP address. I could ping it. I even opened http://192.168.1.111 and saw the default apache page ("It works!").
wpa_supplicant -Dmadwifi -iath0 -c/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
But I go back to the command line interface on my server and see the following:
then a long long long pause until this appeared
Trying to associate with ('MAC address of my router') (SSID='MYSSID' freq=2457 MHz)
ioctl[IEEE80211_ioctl>setmlme]: Invalid argument
Association request to the driver failed
Associated with ('MAC address of my router')
WPA: Key negotiation completed with ('MAC address of my router') [PTK=CCMP CTK=TKIP]
CTRL-EVENT-CONNECTED - Connection to ('MAC address of my router') completed (auth) [id=0 id_str=]
and now I cannot do anything to get the command prompt back. If I ctrl-C, I drop my connection.
WPA: group rekeying completed with ('MAC address of my router') [GTK=TKIP]
I'm gonna let this ride and see what happens, but unless this process releases, I can't do much command-line wise.