Welcome to GLO
For information on the cpu type and memory information you can use the commands
For a real time monitor of cpu processes, loadavg, mem usage, etc. The command I'd recommend is 'top' (pressing q will exit)
For disk usage statistics the 'df' command will be the best.
If you read the manuals for df as well as top there is a good overview of what they do, as well as some options you can use with them.
I don't know offhand what you mean by the Scheduling process through C or the interprocess communication in Linux, but I'm sure someone will.
All that comes to mind that you might be meaning, unless you actually want to write programs to do it, is scheduling processes with cron or at. Again the man pages are good sources of information for those.
One of the best places for information on specific things is The Linux Document Project
I hope that helps.
P.S. This is not meant to be an RTFM post