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Newbie Questions
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Thread: Newbie Questions

  1. #1
    rooster
    Guest

    Newbie Questions

    Hi,

    I am your typical newbie, and I have a few questions.

    Background:
    I come from an MS world and I am looking to convert. I recently installed RedHat 7.2 with a workstation install and chose select packages to install. I then proceeded to load every available package, so I can learn. I updated all packages (500 Megs of downloading - good thing I have a cable modem) after the install and created a few new users. I also purchased RedHat Linux Second Edition The Complete Reference (I tend to disagree).

    Issues:
    1) I wanted to see what IP address I was allocated to my PC so I opened a terminal and typed "ifconfig --help" as suggested in another thread here. The response was "command not found." I figured I didn't have permission so I typed "su" and entered the password. I tried again. Same results. From here I searched for the file and found it in the /sbin directory. I changed to that directory and tried again. Same results. Yet I see "ifconfig" listed in the directory in green (by the way what are the color associations) if I do an ls. Same issue if I try linuxconf. What gives?

    2) I was downloading some additional programs that I wanted to try, and there seems to be no standard for dowloaded programs. Some are .gz, .tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .zip, .bzip, .sh. How do I know what command to use to open all of these and what are the most common options? In some cases I can click on the download and it opens a folder with other files and directories, but I cannot click on the "install" and have it run. Then if I go to the terminal and go to the folder it was downloaded to, I cannot see the folder that was created by clicking on the original download. I see it in the GUI but not at the command line. Wierd?

    3) How do I run programs? Most programs do not install an entry into the K menu after install. Some programs work by going to the directory and typing "./program", while others don't. What is the standard?

    4) Dependencies. I have tried going to rpmfind and a host of others to find dependencies to install programs. These seems so tedious, is there a workaround? Debian "apt-get" is not the answer.

    It seems that simple tasks like downloading, installing, and running programs is tedious, time consuming, and difficult.

    I refuse to upgrade to Windows XP, and would really like to become a Linux guru. Where do I start?

  2. #2

    Re:Newbie Questions

    Quote Originally Posted by rooster
    Hi,

    I am your typical newbie, and I have a few questions.

    Background:
    I come from an MS world and I am looking to convert. I recently installed RedHat 7.2 with a workstation install and chose select packages to install. I then proceeded to load every available package, so I can learn. I updated all packages (500 Megs of downloading - good thing I have a cable modem) after the install and created a few new users. I also purchased RedHat Linux Second Edition The Complete Reference (I tend to disagree).
    LOL, I don't think there is a single "complete reference" out there for linux! ;-)

    Issues:
    1) I wanted to see what IP address I was allocated to my PC so I opened a terminal and typed "ifconfig --help" as suggested in another thread here. The response was "command not found." I figured I didn't have permission so I typed "su" and entered the password. I tried again. Same results. From here I searched for the file and found it in the /sbin directory. I changed to that directory and tried again. Same results. Yet I see "ifconfig" listed in the directory in green (by the way what are the color associations) if I do an ls. Same issue if I try linuxconf. What gives?
    Even though you login as su, you still retain the init paths given to the user you are working under. Also, when you switch to the sbin directory you need to type ./ in front of the comman to tell it to look in the local directory and not in the environment paths.

    2) I was downloading some additional programs that I wanted to try, and there seems to be no standard for dowloaded programs. Some are .gz, .tar, .tar.gz, .tgz, .zip, .bzip, .sh. How do I know what command to use to open all of these and what are the most common options? In some cases I can click on the download and it opens a folder with other files and directories, but I cannot click on the "install" and have it run. Then if I go to the terminal and go to the folder it was downloaded to, I cannot see the folder that was created by clicking on the original download. I see it in the GUI but not at the command line. Wierd?
    I think the most common of those are .tar and tar.gz. All of those are compressed files except for .sh which is a bash script executable. To unzip this as needed. (note commands will differ on version of tar, just do tar --help for more info)

    .tar tar -xvf <packagename>.tar
    .tar.gz tar -xzvf <packagename>.tar.gz
    .gz gunzip -rv <packagename>.gz
    .tgz tar -xzvf <packagename>.tgz <---I am not completely sure about this one, but I am pretty sure.
    .zip unzip <packagename>.zip
    .bzip bunzip2 <packagename>.bzip
    .tar.bz2 tar -xIvf <packagename>.tar.bz2
    .sh ./<filename>.sh

    3) How do I run programs? Most programs do not install an entry into the K menu after install. Some programs work by going to the directory and typing "./program", while others don't. What is the standard?
    This is a hard question to answer cuz there is no "standard" per say. It depends on the type of program you are using...some will run command line, but you can always edit your menus in kde/gnome/etc to include a link to this command. Most will always execute or attempt to execute from commandline, honestly I've never seen one that didn't attempt to atleast try and execute. Just goto the directory that it installed to and type ./<command> The errors should be enough to tell you what you need to do from there.

    4) Dependencies. I have tried going to rpmfind and a host of others to find dependencies to install programs. These seems so tedious, is there a workaround? Debian "apt-get" is not the answer.
    LOL...ahhh you've touched on a hot subject. Myself, I still hate dependencies and for me apt-get IS the answer. But as far as I know for rpm you pretty much have to scour the web looking for the packages. JimH will tell you otherwise, which he will be right, but the command line to look for the crap is much harder than

    apt-get install <insert name here>

    It seems that simple tasks like downloading, installing, and running programs is tedious, time consuming, and difficult.

    I refuse to upgrade to Windows XP, and would really like to become a Linux guru. Where do I start?
    This is because you are new. This post should really ease a lot of things for you. As well this site can do a lot for you as well, we have some GREAT guys here and some newbies here that will be in the same shoes you are a lot of the time and you'll be able to work through it. This is the worst and best thing about Linux, it is hard to get used to and everything seems such a chore at first. But you'll SOON(I promise) realize that it stops becoming a chore very quickly and starts becoming fun. That is when you start getting into tweaking your system the way windows never let you! ;D

    Aragorn

    P.S. Welcome to the board, hope to see you around often!
    If you give a man a fire he'll be warm, if you light the man on fire he'll be warm for life.

  3. #3
    rooster
    Guest

    Re:Newbie Questions

    Aragorn, thanks, you kick @55!
    ----------------------------------
    ./ifconfig worked, but ./linuxconf did not. It gave the following errors:
    Error message from remadmin :Xlib: connection to ":0.0" refused by server
    Error message from remadmin :Xlib: Client is not authorized to connect to Server
    Error message from remadmin :
    Error message from remadmin :Gtk-Warning **: cannot open display: :0.0
    -----------------------------------

    What about the color codes for ls in directories....
    Green = program or executable
    Blue = Directory
    Light Blue = Different Kind of Program??
    Red = Compressed File
    Any Others?

    -------------------------------------
    I have no problem with command line, I just need to get the hang of working with the file types, and completing basic tasks. I think installing programs in Linux is painful. Other than that It is great. I istalled, got online, set up email, and played with a few programs in under 2 hours. Not too bad....
    -------------------------------------
    I just need to get the hang of finding and running programs.

  4. #4
    Spot
    Guest

    Re:Newbie Questions

    Aragorn, thanks, you kick @55!
    Oscar kicks his ass on a regular basis :P

    ./ifconfig worked, but ./linuxconf did not. It gave the following errors:
    Error message from remadmin :Xlib: connection to ":0.0" refused by server
    Error message from remadmin :Xlib: Client is not authorized to connect to Server
    Error message from remadmin :
    Error message from remadmin :Gtk-Warning **: cannot open display: :0.0
    Try hitting CTRL+ALT+<F1-F6> and get to a virtual terminal, login as root and try running linuxconf (/sbin/linuxconf) from there, you might have better luck.
    CTRL+ALT+F7 should get you back to your GUI.

    What about the color codes for ls in directories....
    Green = program or executable
    Blue = Directory
    Light Blue = Different Kind of Program??
    Red = Compressed File
    Any Others?
    http://www-106.ibm.com/developerwork...tip-prompt/#h1
    has a pretty decent bash color reference.

    I have no problem with command line, I just need to get the hang of working with the file types, and completing basic tasks.
    Yep, I bet you were a bit lost on winders too when you first started, just like most people are with something they're new to. It'll come to you in time.

    I think installing programs in Linux is painful. Other than that It is great.
    See above..once you get used to things, it'll become second nature for the most part.

    I just need to get the hang of finding and running programs.
    That'll come, just give yourself some time

  5. #5
    rooster
    Guest

    Re:Newbie Questions

    Spot,

    I just went to the K menu under System and opened Terminal (Super User Mode) and changed to the /sbin directory and ran ./linuxconf and it worked. Thanks.

    After that I tried to just open a regular terminal session and su'ed and tried it again with the same error as before.

    What is the difference? Why does one work but not the other?

    I also tried the CTRL-ALT-F1 trick you mentioned but with no luck. It brought me to a text interface, but I didn't know how to open a terminal. I tried to type /sbin, and it didn't do anything. From there I did CTRL-ALT-F7 to get back to the GUI.

    I am glad I found this board. You guys are really helpful.


    I'm learning.........

  6. #6
    Spot
    Guest

    Re:Newbie Questions

    I can't really say for sure why it fails from a terminal window, but you could make a Menu entry for it with the menu config tool that you'll find in there somewhere...kmenu or something like that. There might actually be one there already under the gnome sections, if you installed gnome.
    BTW, you don't have to change to /sbin to run it, you can run it from where ever you may be just by typing:
    /sbin/linuxconf

  7. #7

    Re:Newbie Questions

    First of all i must say congrats on explaining all your questions clearly and saying what you had already tried etc.

    and welcome to GLO

    CTRL-ALT-<F1-F6> Takes you directly to console mode.
    This is true linux and all you have to do is log in and start typing :P
    eg:
    login: root
    password:
    [root@localhost root] ifconfig
    blah
    blah
    blah
    whatdoyougetwhenyoumultiplysixbynine??

  8. #8

    Re:Newbie Questions

    Quote Originally Posted by rooster
    Spot,

    I just went to the K menu under System and opened Terminal (Super User Mode) and changed to the /sbin directory and ran ./linuxconf and it worked. Thanks.

    After that I tried to just open a regular terminal session and su'ed and tried it again with the same error as before.

    What is the difference? Why does one work but not the other?
    I am not quite sure what you mean, if they were both terminal windows under an X environment, the only reason it shouldn't have worked is if you were in su mode. The error you got was a gtk related error, which means it is looking for the gtk libraries, which are the graphical libraries for gnome. Yes they will work under kde as a long as you do have the libraries installed. The reason you can't access it from the console is because the graphics libraries are not loaded into memory by X so it is lost and errors out.

    I also tried the CTRL-ALT-F1 trick you mentioned but with no luck. It brought me to a text interface, but I didn't know how to open a terminal. I tried to type /sbin, and it didn't do anything. From there I did CTRL-ALT-F7 to get back to the GUI.
    heheh, it worked...actually while in the interface CTRL-ALT-F1 will give you the readout from X windows, so if there are errors it is a good place to check to see what is going on. But what spot was refering to were tty terminals. It is a huge benefit of Linux, it shows how multi threaded linux truly is. It allows you to run completely seperate processes, in otherwords it is pretty much like having 6 or 7 computers in one. Only thing you can't really do is run x windows multiple times as it puts that all on a single tty terminal for obvious reasons of course! ;D

    I am glad I found this board. You guys are really helpful.


    I'm learning.........
    I am glad you found the board as well! ;-)

    Aragorn
    If you give a man a fire he'll be warm, if you light the man on fire he'll be warm for life.

  9. #9
    JimH
    Guest

    Re:Newbie Questions

    First, linuxconf is busted. I recommend against using it. It is depreciated by Red Hat. It will work for somethings, but it is guaranteed to break others.

    I do not use it, but I know others really like it, you might try webmin for a GUI configuration tool.

    http://www.webmin.com/webmin/

    The systemwide color defaults for ls are stored in /etc/DIR_COLORS. You can override these for each user by creating ~/.dir_colors and placing the colors you want to use for that user in it. These files are read by /etc/profile.d/colorls.sh when the user logs in.

    Jim H

  10. #10
    jmbrinks
    Guest

    Re:Newbie Questions

    Welcome aboard rooster!

    There are a few RH users on this board. I also had (have) dependency nightmares as well.

    Hopefully this string helped. If not keep firing away.


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