you should not need anything from the Windows domain to just access the internet. You can also access network share without being part of the domain. You just need to put in your username and password on the tool you are using. You could use LinNeighborhood or the built-in tools from Gnome or KDE.
You can add the machine as a member of the domain, but your system administrator might not bee to happy to do that without his consent.
So anyway, if you give us some information on your setup, we might be able to help you further.